Calculating 32-bit CRCs (CRC-32)
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ZIP files have a 32-bit CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check). The following code calculates these CRCs. It was unbelievably difficult tracking down sample CRC-32 code so I have put all my work together here so other people can use it.

The ZIP CRC is CRC-32 with a start value of &FFFFFFFF, the end value is XORed with &FFFFFFFF, and uses a polynomic of &EDB88320. These three values can be changed to create code to generate other varients of CRC-32. CRC32 is BBC BASIC test code with BASIC, 6502, Z80, 80x86 and ARM code.

'C' code

/* Calculating ZIP CRC-32 in 'C'
   =============================
   Reference model for the translated code */

#define poly 0xEDB88320
/* Some compilers need
   #define poly 0xEDB88320uL
 */

/* On entry, addr=>start of data
             num = length of data
             crc = incoming CRC     */
int crc32(char *addr, int num, int crc)
{
int i;

for (; num>0; num--)              /* Step through bytes in memory */
  {
  crc = crc ^ *addr++;            /* Fetch byte from memory, XOR into CRC */
  for (i=0; i<8; i++)             /* Prepare to rotate 8 bits */
  {
    if (crc & 1)                  /* b0 is set... */
      crc = (crc >> 1) ^ poly;    /* rotate and XOR with ZIP polynomic */
    else                          /* b0 is clear... */
      crc >>= 1;                  /* just rotate */
  /* Some compilers need:
    crc &= 0xFFFFFFFF;
   */
    }                             /* Loop for 8 bits */
  }                               /* Loop until num=0 */
  return(crc);                    /* Return updated CRC */
}

BBC BASIC

REM crc%  = incoming CRC
REM start%=>start of data
REM num%  = number of bytes
:
FOR addr%=start% TO start%+num%-1
  crc%=crc% EOR ?addr%                       :REM EOR with current byte
  FOR bit%=1 TO 8                            :REM Loop through 8 bits
    old%=crc%
    crc%=(((crc%+(crc%<0))DIV2)AND&7FFFFFFF) :REM Move crc% down one bit
    REM The above is the same as crc%=crc% >>> 1 in BASIC V.
    IF old% AND 1:crc%=crc% EOR &EDB88320    :REM EOR with ZIP polynomic
  NEXT bit%
NEXT addr%
:
REM crc% = outgoing CRC
The following is a highly crunched and speeded up version:
FORA%=mem%TOmem%+num%-1:S%=S%EOR?A%:FORB%=1TO8:O%=S%:S%=(((S%+(S%<0))DIV2)AND&7FFFFFFF):IFO%AND1:S%=S%EOR&EDB88320
NEXT:NEXT

6502

\ Calculating ZIP CRC-32 in 6502
\ ==============================

\ Calculate a ZIP 32-bit CRC from data in memory. This code is as
\ tight and as fast as it can be, moving as much code out of inner
\ loops as possible.
\
\ On entry, crc..crc+3   =  incoming CRC
\           addr..addr+1 => start of data
\           num..num+1   =  number of bytes
\ On exit,  crc..crc+3   =  updated CRC
\           addr..addr+1 => end of data+1
\           num..num+1   =  0
\
\ Multiple passes over data in memory can be made to update the CRC.
\ For ZIP, initial CRC must be &FFFFFFFF, and the final CRC must
\ be EORed with &FFFFFFFF before being stored in the ZIP file.
\
\ Extra CRC optimisation by Mike Cook, extra loop optimisation by JGH.
\ Total 63 bytes.
\
.crc32
.bytelp
LDX #8                       :\ Prepare to rotate CRC 8 bits
LDA (addr-8 AND &FF,X)       :\ Fetch byte from memory
:
\ The following code updates the CRC with the byte in A ---------+
\ If used in isolation, requires LDX #8 here                     |
EOR crc+0                    :\ EOR byte into CRC bottom byte    |
.rotlp                       :\                                  |
LSR crc+3:ROR crc+2          :\ Rotate CRC clearing bit 31       |
ROR crc+1:ROR A              :\                                  |
BCC clear                    :\ b0 was zero                      |
TAY                          :\ Hold CRC low byte in Y for a bit |
LDA crc+3:EOR #&ED:STA crc+3 :\ CRC=CRC EOR &EDB88320, ZIP polynomic
LDA crc+2:EOR #&B8:STA crc+2 :\                                  |
LDA crc+1:EOR #&83:STA crc+1 :\                                  |
TYA:EOR #&20                 :\ Get CRC low byte back into A     |
.clear                       :\                                  |
DEX:BNE rotlp                :\ Loop for 8 bits                  |
\ If used in isolation, requires STA crc+0 here                  |
\ ---------------------------------------------------------------+
:
INC addr:BNE next:INC addr+1 :\ Step to next byte
.next
STA crc+0                    :\ Store CRC low byte
                             :\ Now do a 16-bit decrement
LDA num+0:BNE skip           :\ num.lo<>0, not wrapping from 00 to FF
DEC num+1                    :\ Wrapping from 00 to FF, dec. high byte
.skip
DEC num+0:BNE bytelp         :\ Dec. low byte, loop until num.lo=0
LDA num+1:BNE bytelp         :\ Loop until num=0
RTS
There is a examination of optimising the CRC code on the
BeebWiki.

Z80

\ Calculating ZIP CRC-32 in Z80
\ =============================

\ Calculate a ZIP 32-bit CRC from data in memory. This code is as
\ tight and as fast as it can be, moving as much code out of inner
\ loops as possible. Can be made shorter, but slower, by replacing
\ JP with JR.
\
\ On entry, crc..crc+3   =  incoming CRC
\           addr..addr+1 => start of data
\           num..num+1   =  number of bytes
\ On exit,  crc..crc+3   =  updated CRC
\           addr..addr+1 => undefined
\           num..num+1   =  undefined
\
\ Multiple passes over data in memory can be made to update the CRC.
\ For ZIP, initial CRC must be &FFFFFFFF, and the final CRC must
\ be EORed with &FFFFFFFF before being stored in the ZIP file.
\ Total 70 bytes. 
\
.crc32
LD IX,(addr):LD BC,(num)   :\ Address, Count
LD DE,(crc):LD HL,(crc+2)  :\ Incoming CRC
\
\ Enter here with IX=addr, BC=num, HLDE=crc
\
.bytelp
PUSH BC                   :\ Save count
LD A,(IX)                 :\ Fetch byte from memory
:
\ The following code updates the CRC with the byte in A ---------+
XOR E                     :\ XOR byte into CRC bottom byte       |
LD B,8                    :\ Prepare to rotate 8 bits            |
.rotlp                    :\                                     |
SRL H:RR L:RR D:RRA       :\ Rotate CRC                          |
JP NC,clear               :\ b0 was zero                         |
LD E,A                    :\ Put CRC low byte back into E        |
LD A,H:XOR &ED:LD H,A     :\ CRC=CRC XOR &EDB88320, ZIP polynomic|
LD A,L:XOR &B8:LD L,A     :\                                     |
LD A,D:XOR &83:LD D,A     :\                                     |
LD A,E:XOR &20            :\ And get CRC low byte back into A    |
.clear                    :\                                     |
DEC B:JP NZ,rotlp         :\ Loop for 8 bits                     |
LD E,A                    :\ Put CRC low byte back into E        |
\ ---------------------------------------------------------------+
:
INC IX                     :\ Step to next byte
POP BC:DEC BC              :\ num=num-1
LD A,B:OR C:JP NZ,bytelp   :\ Loop until num=0
LD (crc),DE:LD (crc+2),HL  :\ Store outgoing CRC
RET

6809

\ Calculating ZIP CRC-32 in 6809
\ ==============================

\ Calcluate a ZIP 32-bit CRC from data in memory. This code is as
\ tight and nearly as fast as it can be, moving as much code out of inner
\ loops as possible. Further optimisation may be possible, moving the
\ whole CRC in registers but the gain on average data is only slight
\ (estimated 2% but at losing clarity of implemention;
\ worst case gain is 18%, best case worsens at 29%)
\
\ On entry, crc..crc+3   =  incoming CRC
\           addr..addr+1 => start of data
\           num..num+1   =  number of bytes
\ On exit,  crc..crc+3   =  updated CRC
\           addr..addr+1 => unchanged
\           num..num+1   =  unchanged
\
\ Value order in memory is H,L (big endian)
\
\ Multiple passes over data in memory can be made to update the CRC.
\ For ZIP, initial CRC must be &FFFFFFFF, and the final CRC must
\ be EORed with &FFFFFFFF before being stored in the ZIP file.
\ Total 47 bytes (if above parameters are located in direct page).
\
\ Author:
\
\ ZIP polynomic &04C11DB7, bit reversed
POLYHH   EQU &ED
POLYHL   EQU &B8
POLYLH   EQU &83
POLYLL   EQU &20

.crc32
ldu addr        :\ Start address (direct page or extended)
ldx num         :\ Count (DP or extended)
ldd crc+2       :\ Incoming CRC, low part
:
.bl 
\ The following code updates the CRC with the byte in the operand of the eorb statement --+
eorb ,u+        :\ Fetch byte and XOR into CRC lowest byte                                |
ldy #8          :\ Rotate loop counter                                                    |
.rl                                                                                       |
lsr crc         :\ Shift CRC right, beginning                                             |
ror crc+1       :\ from the highest byte                                                  |
rora                                                                                      |
rorb                                                                                      |
bcc cl          :\ Justify or ...                                                         |
eora #POLYLH    :\ CRC=CRC XOR polynomic low word                                         |
eorb #POLYLL                                                                              |
std crc+2                                                                                 |
ldd crc         :\ CRC=CRC XOR polynomic high word                                        |
eora #POLYHH                                                                              |
eorb #POLYHL                                                                              |
std crc                                                                                   |
ldd crc+2       :\ CRC low                                                                |
.cl                                                                                       |
leay -1,y       :\ Shift loop (8 bits)                                                    |
bne rl                                                                                    |
\ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
:
leax -1,x       :\ Byte loop
bne bl
:
std crc+2       :\ Store final CRC low back
rts

PDP-11

; Calculating ZIP CRC-32 in PDP-11
; ================================

; Calculate a ZIP 32-bit CRC from data in memory. This code is as
; tight and as fast as it can be, moving as much code out of inner
; loops as possible.
;
; On entry, crc..crc+3   =  incoming CRC
;           addr..addr+1 => start of data
;           num..num+1   =  number of bytes
; On exit,  crc..crc+1   =  updated CRC
;           addr..addr+1 => undefined
;           num..num+1   =  undefined
;
; Multiple passes over data in memory can be made to update the CRC.
; For ZIP, initial CRC must be &FFFFFFFF, and the final CRC must
; be EORed with &FFFFFFFF before being stored in the ZIP file.
; Total 70 bytes.
;
.crc32
mov  (addr),r1     ; Address
mov  (num),r2      ; Count
mov  (crc+0),r4    ; CRC low byte
mov  (crc+2),r3    ; CRC high byte
;
; Enter here with r1=>addr, r2=count, r3/r4=CRC
;
.bytelp
movb (r1)+,r0      ; Fetch byte from memory

; The following code updates the CRC with the byte in R0 -----+
bic  #&FF00,r0     ; Ensure b8-b15 clear                      |
xor r0,r4          ; XOR into CRC low byte                    |
mov #8,r0          ; Prepare to rotate 8 bits                 |
.rotlp             ;                                          |
clc                ;                                          |
ror r3             ; Rotate CRC                               |
ror r4             ;                                          |
bcc clear          ; b0 was zero                              |
mov #&EDB8,r5      ; CRC=CRC xor &EDB88320, ZIP polynomic     |
xor r5,r3          ;                                          |
mov #&8320,r5      ;                                          |
xor r5,r4          ;                                          |
.clear             ;                                          |
sub #1,r0          ;                                          |
bne rotlp          ; Loop for 8 bits                          |
; ------------------------------------------------------------+
;
sub #1,r2          ; num=num-1
bne bytelp         ; Loop until num=0
mov r4,(crc+0)     ; Store outgoing CRC
mov r3,(crc+2)
rts pc
  • CRC32-11 - PDP-11 CRC-32 test program
  • CRC32.pdp - PDP11 CRC-32 machine code

    32-bit 80x86

    ; Calculating ZIP CRC-32 in 32-bit 80x86
    ; ======================================
    
    ; Calculate a ZIP 32-bit CRC from data in memory. This code is as
    ; tight and as fast as it can be, moving as much code out of inner
    ; loops as possible.
    ;
    ; On entry, crc..crc+3   =  incoming CRC
    ;           addr..addr+3 => start of data
    ;           num..num+3   =  number of bytes
    ; On exit,  crc..crc+3   =  updated CRC
    ;           addr..addr+3 =  undefined
    ;           num..num+3   =  undefined
    ;
    ; Multiple passes over data in memory can be made to update the CRC.
    ; For ZIP, initial CRC must be &FFFFFFFF, and the final CRC must
    ; be EORed with &FFFFFFFF before being stored in the ZIP file.
    ; total 62 bytes.
    ;
    .crc32
    MOV ESI,[addr]      ; ESI=>start of data
    MOV EBX,[num]       ; EBX= length of data
    MOV ECX,[crc]       ; ECX= incoming CRC
    ;
    .bytelp
    MOV AL,[ESI]        ; Fetch byte from memory
    ;
    ; The following code updates the CRC with the byte in AL -----+
    XOR CL,AL           ; XOR byte into bottom of CRC             |
    MOV AL,8            ; Prepare to rotate 8 bits                |
    .rotlp              ;                                         |
    SHR ECX,1           ; Rotate CRC                              |
    JNC clear           ; b0 was zero                             |
    XOR ECX,&EDB88320   ; If b0 was set, XOR with ZIP polymonic   |
    .clear              ;                                         |
    DEC AL:JNZ rotlp    ; Loop for 8 bits                         |
    ; ------------------------------------------------------------+
    ;
    INC SI              ; Point to next byte
    DEC EBX:JNE bytelp  ; num=num-1, loop until num=0
    MOV [crc],ECX       ; Store outgoing CRC
    RETF
    .addr:DD 0
    .num:DD 0
    .crc:DD 0

    32016

    ARM

    \ Calculating ZIP CRC-32 in ARM
    \ =============================
    
    \ Calculate a ZIP 32-bit CRC from data in memory. This code is as
    \ tight and as fast as it can be, moving as much code out of inner
    \ loops as possible.
    \
    \ On entry, crc..crc+3   =  incoming CRC
    \           addr..addr+3 => start of data
    \           num..num+3   =  number of bytes
    \ On exit,  crc..crc+3   =  updated CRC
    \           addr..addr+3 => undefined
    \           num..num+3   =  undefined
    \
    \ Multiple passes over data in memory can be made to update the CRC.
    \ For ZIP, initial CRC must be &FFFFFFFF, and the final CRC must
    \ be EORed with &FFFFFFFF before being stored in the ZIP file.
    \ Total 76 bytes.
    \
    .crc32
    LDR R0,addr:LDR R1,num     :\ Address, Count
    LDR R2,crc                 :\ Incoming CRC
    \
    \ Enter here with R0=addr, R1=num, R2=crc
    \
    .crc32reg
    LDR R3,xor                 :\ ZIP polynomic
    .bytelp
    LDRB R4,[R0],#1            :\ Get byte, inc address
    :
    \ The following code updates the CRC with the byte in R4 --------+
    \ If used in isolation, requires LDR R3,xor here                 |
    EOR R2,R2,R4               :\ EOR byte into CRC bottom byte      |
    MOV R4,#8                  :\ Prepare to rotate 8 bits           |
    .rotlp                     :\                                    |
    MOVS R2,R2,LSR #1          :\ Rotate CRC                         |
    EORCS R2,R2,R3             :\ If b0 was set, EOR with ZIP polynomic
    SUBS R4,R4,#1:BNE rotlp    :\ Loop for 8 bits                    |
    \ ---------------------------------------------------------------+
    :
    SUBS R1,R1,#1:BNE bytelp   :\ Loop until num=0
    STR R2,crc:MOV R15,R14     :\ Store outgoing CRC and return
    .xor :EQUD &EDB88320       :\ ZIP polynomic
    .addr:EQUD 0
    .num :EQUD 0
    .crc :EQUD 0

    Sample calling code

    Multiple passes over data can be made, for instance, as an input file is copied to an output file. The following code demonstrates how to do this, copying from an open file on in% to an open file on out%, calculating a ZIP CRC-32 as it goes.
    REM mem%=buffer
    REM max%=size of buffer
    S%=-1                            :REM CRC starts as &FFFFFFFF
    REPEAT
      num%=EXT#in%-PTR#in%           :REM Number of bytes to transfer
      IF num%>max% THEN num%=max%    :REM If more than size of buffer max%, use max%
      PROCgbpb(rd%,in%,mem%,num%,0)  :REM Read block of data
      PROCcrc                        :REM Update CRC
      PROCgbpb(wr%,out%,mem%,num%,0) :REM Write block of data
    UNTIL PTR#in%=EXT#in%            :REM Loop until all done
    crc%=NOT S%                      :REM Final CRC is inverted
    The CRC is calculated with one of the following subroutines:
    REM BASIC:
    DEFPROCcrc:FORA%=mem%TOmem%+num%-1:S%=S%EOR?A%:FORB%=1TO8:O%=S%:S%=(((S%+(S%<0))DIV2)AND&7FFFFFFF):IFO%AND1:S%=S%EOR&EDB88320
    NEXT:NEXT:ENDPROC
    
    REM Assembler:
    DEFPROCcrc:!addr=mem%:!num=num%:!crc=S%:CALL Calc:S%=!crc:ENDPROC
    :
    REM With CRC-32 code previously assembled with:
    :
    REM Crunched assembler routines
    REM ---------------------------
    DEFPROCcrc65:DIM Calc 63:addr=&70:num=&72:crc=&74:FORP=0TO1
    P%=Calc:[OPT P*2:.bl:LDX #8:LDA (addr-8 AND &FF,X):EOR crc
    .rl:LSR crc+3:ROR crc+2:ROR crc+1:ROR A:BCC cl
    TAY:LDA crc+3:EOR #&ED:STA crc+3:LDA crc+2:EOR #&B8:STA crc+2
    LDA crc+1:EOR #&83:STA crc+1:TYA:EOR #&20:.cl
    DEX:BNE rl:INC addr:BNE nx:INC addr+1:.nx:STA crc
    LDA num:BNE sk:DEC num+1:.sk:DEC num:BNE bl
    LDA num+1:BNE bl:RTS:]:NEXT:ENDPROC
    :
    DEFPROCcrc80:DIM Calc 79:addr=&70:num=&72:crc=&74:FORP=0TO1
    P%=Calc:[OPT P*2:LD IX,(addr):LD BC,(num)
    LD DE,(crc):LD HL,(crc+2)
    .bl:PUSH BC:LD A,(IX):XOR E:LD B,8
    .rl:SRL H:RR L:RR D:RRA:JP NC,cl:LD E,A
    LD A,H:XOR &ED:LD H,A:LD A,L:XOR &B8:LD L,A
    LD A,D:XOR &83:LD D,A:LD A,E:XOR &20
    .cl:DEC B:JP NZ,rl:LD E,A:INC IX:POP BC:DEC BC
    LD A,B:OR C:JP NZ,bl:LD (crc),DE
    LD (crc+2),HL:RET:]:NEXT:ENDPROC
    :
    DEFPROCcrc86:DIM Calc 63:FORP=0TO1
    P%=Calc:[OPT P*2:MOV ESI,[addr]:MOV EBX,[num]
    MOV ECX,[crc]:.bl:MOV AL,[ESI]:XOR CL,AL:MOV AL,8
    .rl:SHR ECX,1:JNC cl:XOR ECX,&EDB88320:.cl
    DEC AL:JNZ rl:INC SI:DEC EBX:JNE bl:MOV [crc],ECX
    RETF:.addr:DD 0:.num:DD 0:.crc:DD 0:]:NEXT:ENDPROC
    :
    DEFPROCcrcARM:DIM Calc 79:FORP=0TO1
    P%=Calc:[OPT P*2:LDR R0,addr:LDR R1,num
    LDR R2,crc:LDR R3,xor
    .bl:LDRB R4,[R0],#1:EOR R2,R2,R4:MOV R4,#8
    .rl:MOVS R2,R2,LSR #1:EORCS R2,R2,R3
    SUBS R4,R4,#1:BNE rl:SUBS R1,R1,#1:BNE bl
    STR R2,crc:MOV R15,R14:.xor:EQUD &EDB88320
    .addr:EQUD 0:.num:EQUD 0:.crc:EQUD 0:]:NEXT:ENDPROC
    :
    07-Jan-2013: Managed to squeeze another one byte out of the Z80 code.

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